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Diagnosis

If a nasal or paranasal tumor is suspected, the surgical oncologist will do a complete physical examination, endoscopic examination of nasal cavity with biopsy. Imaging tests are done to determine, if the cancer has spread.

The details of the tests and procedures are as under :

Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.

Physical exam of the nose, face, and neck: An exam in which the doctor looks into the nose with a small, long-handled mirror to check for abnormal areas and checks the face and neck for lumps or swollen lymph nodes.

X-rays of the head, neck, and chest: An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.

Nasoscopy: A procedure to look inside the nose for abnormal areas. A nasoscope is inserted into the nose. A nasoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer.

Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer.

Other Imaging tests to help diagnose nasal or paranasal tumors may include:

  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan

Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:

Where the tumor is in the paranasal sinus or nasal cavity and whether it has spread.

  • The size of the tumor.
  • The type of cancer.
  • The patient′s age and general health.
  • Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred (come back).

Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancers often have spread by the time they are diagnosed and are hard to cure. After treatment, a lifetime of frequent and careful follow-up is important because there is an increased risk of developing a second kind of cancer in the head or neck.